As the name suggests, prostate cancer is the cancer that affects the prostate gland. In men, this is the most common type of cancer. The cancer usually remains confined to the prostate gland, but can spread to other parts of the body at times.
When the cancer does not spread outside the prostate gland, it may not cause any serious problems and the affected person may need only minimal treatment. But, certain types of prostate cancer can be quite aggressive and spread rapidly to other areas. The prognosis of prostate cancer is usually better, if the cancer is detected in the early stage when it has not spread to other parts of the body.
What causes this cancer is not known yet. But, it has been found that the cancer begins when some cells in the gland become abnormal and mutations in their DNA cause them to grow rapidly. What exactly causes these cells to become abnormal is not known.
However, age, a family history of prostate cancer, and obesity are considered to be the risk factors for this cancer. Another risk factor is race, as it has been observed that black men have a greater risk of developing this cancer.
In the early stage, the cancer may not produce any signs and symptoms. Patients in the advance stage can, however, experience trouble/pain in urinating, blood in semen, bone pain, and discomfort in the pelvic area.
The treatment options available for prostate cancer include chemotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. The following are the drugs approved for the treatment of prostate cancer -
Some of these drugs are chemotherapy agents, while others are used in hormone therapy. For example, Cyclophosphamide, Cabazitaxel, and Docetaxel are chemotherapy drugs, while Enzalutamide, Conjugated Estrogens, Estradiol Valerate, and Leuprolide Acetate are used in hormone therapy. On the other hand, Sipuleucel-T is an immunotherapy agent used for treating prostate cancer.